Industrial disputes Industrial Dispute Act 1947 may be said to be disagreement or controversy between management and labour with respect to wages, working conditions, other employment matters or union recognition.
The term Industrial Dispute as described in the Industrial Dispute Act 1947 is characterized by the following features :-
- There should be a difference or dispute
- The dispute could be between employer-employer, employee-employee Or employer- employee
- The dispute must pertain to some work-related issue
- The dispute must be raised by a group or class of workers. For example, the dispute between one or two workers and the respective employer is not an industrial dispute.
Causes of Industrial Dispute :
- Economic Cause:
These causes may be classified as:
- Demand for increase in wages
- Demand for higher gratuity and other retirement benefits.
- Demand for higher bonus.
- Demand for certain allowances such as
- House rent allowance
- Medical allowance
- Night shift allowance
- Conveyance allowance
- Demand for paid holidays.
- Reduction of working hours.
- Better working conditions, etc.
- Political Causes.
Various political parties control Trade unions in India. In many cases, their leadership vests in the hands of persons who are more interested in achieving their political interests rather than the interests of the workers.
- Personnel Causes:
Sometimes, industrial disputes arise because of personnel problems like dismissal, retrenchment, layoff, transfer, promotion, etc.
Industrial disputes also take place because of indiscipline and violence on the part of the workforce. The managements to curb indiscipline and violence resort to lock -outs.
- Misc. causes:
- Workers’ resistance to introduction of new machinery and change of place
- Non- recognition of trade union
- Rumours spread out by undesirable elements
- Working conditions and working methods
- Lack of proper communication
- Behaviour of supervisors
- Inter trade union Rivalry etc.
Impact of Industrial Disputes.
• Interrupted Production.
• Increase in Industrial Disputes.
• Low Morale.
• Mental Deterioration.
• Increase in Wastage.
• Bad Industrial Relations.